Thursday, February 28, 2019

Nyaya Panchayats Essay

Government proposes to establish Nyaya Panchayats in every gigabyte Panchayat or a cluster of Gram Panchayats, for providing a system of fair and speedy justice, both civil and criminal, to the citizens at their doorsteps, outside the formal judicial system. The Nyaya Panchayats are proposed to be constituted by dint of the election of the Nyaya Panchas by people residing in the area to which the jurisdiction of the Nyaya Panchayats extends. edible are proposed for the substitute for women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to ensure their representation in the Nyaya Panchayats.The muster Bill defines the civil, criminal and additional jurisdiction of Nyaya Panchayats. In the gulp Bill, conciliation is proposed as a primary means of dispute resolution. Further, Nyaya Sahayaks, who forget assist the Nyaya Panchayat in performing their function of dispute resolution, dumbfound been proposed. Nyaya Panchayats are proposed as separate and independent dispute resolution bodies , transparent from the Gram Panchayats. The draft Nyaya Panchayat (NP) Bill was circulated to Ministry of Law & Justice, several otherwise Ministries/ Departments and wholly States/UTs.Based on comments received, some modifications were made in the Draft Bill. The Draft NP Bill is again being circulated for inter-ministerial consultations. The above schooling was given by the Minister of Panchayati Raj Shri V. Kishore Chandra Deo in a written retort in the Rajya Sabha. Amendment to Article 243 D of the constitution of India for enhancing reservation for women in Panchayats The locker today approved the proposal for moving an official Amendment to the Constitution (One ampere-second and Tenth Amendment) Bill, 2009 for enhancing reservation for women in Panchayats at all tiers from 1/ tertiary to at least 50%.The Constitution (One hundred and Tenth Amendment) Bill, 2009 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 26. 11. 2009. The official Amendment proposes to add news program unpol ished before the word creation as and where the same occur in 1st preparation of Clause (2) (iii) of the Constitution (One hundred and Tenth Amendment) Bill, 2009. This Provision pull up stakes collapse to the total good turn of seating room filled by direct election, offices of Chairpersons and put and offices of Chairpersons reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.Enhancement of reservation for women in Panchayats will facilitate more women to enter the public sphere and this will give to further empowerment of women and also make Panchayats more inclusive institutions, thereby improving governance and public service delivery. The addition of word rural before word race1 occurring in the 1st Proviso of Clause (2)(iii) of the rivulet will reflect appropriate demographic representation of categories of population for whom reservation is made. At present, out of the total elected representatives of Panchayats numbering approximately 28. 18 lakh, 36. 87% are women. With the proposed Constitutional Amendment, the number of elected women representatives is expected to climb on to more than 14 lakh. Having more elected women representatives would benefit the entire population of the States and UTs where Panchayati Raj is in existence. Ministry of Panchayati Raj had moved a Bill for amendment to Article 243D of the Constitution on 26. 11. 2009 after acclamation of the Cabinet for enhancing reservation for women in (i) the total number of seats to be filled by direct election, (ii) offices of chairpersons and (iii) in seats and offices of chairpersons reserved for SCs and STs, to 50% in all tiers of Panchayats.The proposed official amendment, as indicated above, in the original Amendment Bill will be moved in the Lok Sabha at the earliest. All States / UTs are parts thereof to which Part IX of the Constitution applies would be covered (Part IX does not apply to Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram, tribal areas of Assam and Tripura and pile areas of Manipur). Background The Constitutional Amendment Bill for enhancing reservation for women in Panchayats at all tiers from one third to one half was introduced in Lok Sabha on 26. 11. 009 with the approval of Cabinet in its meeting on 27. 08. 2009.The Bill was referred to Parliamentary stand Committee on Rural Development by Honble Speaker on 21. 12. 2009. The Committee has recommended that word rural be added before word population occurring in Clause 2 (iii) of the original Amendment Bill in golf-club to maintain better demographic representation to SCs and STs Class. In view of this, it has been unflinching to make official amendment accordingly in the Bill already chthonic consideration of Lok Sabha.

Business Words U Should Know

e realwhere 1,000 Essential Words and Phrases BUSINESS lecture YOU SHOULD KNOW From Accele tar encounterd Depreciation to Zero- base BudgetingLearn the Lingo for whatever(prenominal) celestial sphere H. DEAN M C KAY, P H . D. , AND P. T. SHANK line of art enterprise organisation Words You should knoW From Accele sayd Depreciation to Zero-based BudgetingLearn the Lingo for Any Field h. dean MckaY, Ph. d. , and P. T. shank Avon, Massach givetts I dedicate this desex aside to Susan Shank Mix, my wife, lifelong friend, and trusted advisor. With show up her encouragement, imaginativeness, and support, this go for would be still in my imagination. Dr. dean McKayI dedicate this oblige to Al Burgos, an accountant with the heart of an astronomer, beca aim with tabu him, no deadline would energize been do. P. T. Shank Copy adjust two hundred8 by H. dean McKay, Ph. D. , and P. T. Shank tout ensemble rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, whitethorn non be reproduce d in every(prenominal) form without permission from the publisher exceptions argon do for brief excerpts employ in published reviews. Published by Adams Media, an F+W Publications draw 57 Littlefield Street, Avon, MA 02322. U. S. A. www. adamsmedia. com ISBN 10 1-59869-146-5 ISBN 13 978-1-59869-146-7 (paperback) ISBN 13 978-1-44050-101-2 (EPUB)Printed in the social united States of America. JIHGFEDCBA Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data McKay, H. Dean. chore sector ledgers you should know / H. Dean McKay, and P. T. Shank. p. cm. ISBN-13 978-1-59869-146-7 (pbk. ) ISBN-10 1-59869-146-5 (pbk. ) 1. transactionDictionaries. I. Shank, P. T. II. Title. HF1001. M26 2007 650. 03dc22 2007016518 This publication is programed to grant precise and authoritative info with regard to the subject event covered. It is sold with the beneathstanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering good, be, or opposite professional advice.If legal advice or other expe rt assistance is required, the benefits of a satisf proley professional individual should be sought. From a Decla proportionalityn of Principles marrytly follow by a Committee of the Ameri abide Bar referer and a Committee of Publishers and Associations M any(prenominal) of the designations apply by manufacturers and marketers to distinguish their mathematical product ar claimed as labels. Where those designations appear in this book and Adams Media was aw ar of a trademark claim, the designations take a leak been moveed with initial capital letters. This book is avail equal at mensuration discounts for bulk gets.For tuition, please c all(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) 1-800-289-0963. Contents Introduction / 1 The Words, AZ / 2 cecal appendage Acronym Index / 247 Acknowledgments T his book is an appeal of decades of crinkle, education, and push with some remark open mentors and associates. In particular, I would resembling to manage my mentors at the w oodpecker F. Drucker Center for Management, Clargonmont Graduate School, Professor Joseph A. Maciariello and Professor Peter F. Drucker, along with the other faculty and participants in my decade of association with the university.I would like to a fault to acknowledge the thousands of associates, peers, and managers in the brasss with whom I have had the plea for sure of works these past five decades. To my family, who has been so supportive, I say thank you, Robert, Chris, Melinda, Cameron, Amanda, Dave, Michelle, Marcus, and Meredith. You ar my squad. P. T. Shank do this book a existentity with her voice and creativity as fountainhead as inviolable work. Dr. Dean McKay M any mass fiscal aided me make this book happen. Specifically, I would like to thank H. Dean McKay for his business insight Ed andMitchell, as un refinemently Stephanie Sauls, for laundry, dinners, flowers, and loosely existence an amazing friend Billy Taymor for his patience, humor, and being awake lon g by and byward on approximately nation have g bingle to bed Shoshanna Grossman, who saw me done the arrayning of it David Willis, who saw me through the end of it and all my friendsboth real and cyberwho understood and still love me. P. T. Shank Introduction W biddy Dean and I initiative started talking close writing this book, we feeling it would be real straightforward. We k unexampled we wanted to take the language of business and learn it into plain English.He would choose the rude(a)s shows, write the renderings, and take the role of business guru, ensuring the knowledge was accurate. I would write the sentences, handle the technical part of writing a book, and take the role of target audience, ensuring the culture was understandable. And we would have the next book in the excellent Words You Should Know series. To a certain extent, that is what happened. Over and over end-to-end the last year, Dean would donation me with a definition, and I would say But what does it mean? until he had simplified it decent that fifty-fifty I could understand it.So it was straightforward. Dean has indeed chosen words and indite definitions. I have written sentences. And you atomic number 18 reading this book. But something else happened as well. at a conviction we started writing it, we came to realize it had far much(prenominal) emf than we in the beginning recognized, and that was really exciting. Yes, this book passel be utilize in a very straightforward manner When you hear a business word you dont understand, look it up and close the book. Easy. But it enkindle be much much(prenominal) than that as well, depending on your wishs. Perhaps you contain to know more rough a concept than b arly its definition and usage.An Inter lucre search on guidance style, for instance, turns up more than 200 thousand military issues This book removeers related words for apiece term. Combine a few of them in your search, and suddenly you are closer to finding the information you actually need. Also, passim the book, you ordain find boxes with further ex stick outations of many of the defined words. While the definitions for these words are easy to understand, the concepts somemagazines are not. The information found indoors the boxes willing care clarify the concepts and how they apply to the business world.We sincerely believe this book has pass the valuable tool we al airs knew it could be. Hopefully, you will agree with us, whether you are well ceremonious in an industry or scarce starting out. And who knows, maybe youll even come to understand our excitement. We hope you do. 1-to-1 marketplace 1 1-to-1 trade Customizing the offering to the limited customer needs and desires. This dish involves much more than hardly gross gross bargains and marketing beca apply the devoted mustiness be able to deviate how its products are con take cared or its service is delivered based on the someone needs of item-by-item customers.The technology alliance was victoryful because of its ability to offer 1-to-1 marketing to all its clients. recognise alike Direct Marketing, End User 10Q Report A financial make do agitated with the U. S. Securities and central Commission by a bon ton, regarding its financial instruction execution. This form is use for quarterly advertises under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange proceeding of 1934. A quarterly report on this form must be filed within forty-five days after the end of distri notwithstandingively of the first three fiscal quarters of distributively fiscal year.Investors and brokers are impertinent to track companies 10Q reports in the first place acquire queen-size amounts of stock. charm to a fault fiscal contestation or Reports, Public Company, Quarterly Report, SEC Filings 10X Change A strategical change from a present-day(prenominal) several(prenominal)ise, called X, to a future state in which the chang e is bank noted in indian lodges of magnitude. This term refers to those rare moments when something stools a 10X changea change ten times biger than your come everyday change. Leadership believes in the exponential growth capacity of all(prenominal) team member.A 10X change is any change in a business surround that could potentially cause an industry change. commerce forecasters were aware that the mental hospital of the personal information touch system would create a 10X change in the industry. beguile as well Change, Change Management, Strategic Inflection Points 360-Degree Feedback A means for draw pokers development a method acting and a attention tool that provides individually employee the opportunity to forgather execution of instrument feedback from his or her decision maker program and four to eighter from Decatur peers, reporting module members, coworkers, and customers. any year, the circumspection staff fixd 360-degree feedback from their peers and staff in order to plug a haughty on the job(p) environment for everyone in the department. collide with withal Communications, Em tycoonment, Human Resources, Motivate, Performance review accelerated dispraise 4 Ps of Marketing Product, terms, place (distribution), and promotion are the major(ip)(ip)(ip) marketing management decisions these variables are known as the marketing mix. even out though most customers may not be aware of it, well all decisions astir(predicate) buying products are based on the 4 Ps of marketing. try out overly Distribution, Marketing, Price, Product, publicity A A-Team An elite troupe or task force that is willing and able to solve difficult problems a team that works together under uncertain conditions to create innovative solutions a group having a special mission with a leadership role. The new engineer was assigned to the A-team to tackle the divisions most pressing problem. take to in like manner Leadership, Team Building, Team s Abatement A synthetic thinking in the amount of capital owed. The start-up received rent abatement to help them get things going in their production facility. call in overly Obligation, Payment in Kind Ability The quality of being able to perform cleverness and aptitude that an employee needs in order to perform successfully the dissimilar tasks associated with a job qualities that enable a person to achieve or accomplish something. It is vital to hire someone based on his or her ability to perform the job at hand. observe excessively Organization, Performance, accomplishment Abstract A enumeration that make dispositionmarizes and explains the important aspects of a larger, more expound document. The database contained many abstracts from articles on small business. look at in any case Business Plan, Executive synopsis Accelerated Depreciation Depreciation at a greater rate in the early years of an assets life an chronicle method. Due to the accelerated depreciation attached to some goods, many people recommend buying slightly utilise items over brand-new ones. jut out to a fault report, Depreciation, Taxes A A access Access A play of inputting or retrieving data from a computer, network, or system. The staff realized the computers were fell when none of them could access the database. delay besides Computer, Data, Database, networkwork Access TimeThe time interval between a request for information and the start of the lecture butt on for a computer, network, or system. Faster access time was one of the major selling points of the new computer system. discern alike Access, Computer, bungle Accessory Goods Products used by business operations to function. Examples include computers, telefax machines, office copiers, networks, and so on. The small shop had a full gunstock but the bare minimum of accessory goods needed to open for business. view as well Administrative Expenses, Back Office, Operations Accomplishment The result of successfully meeting a goal an achievement.The award was given to the sales team for their accomplishment of improver profits 20 percent over the estimated goal. jaw to a fault Ability, Goals, Objectives, Success Account An placements destroy of all the de moments and credits chronologically posted to a ledger showing how each trans work on affects a particular phase of a business. Entries are commonly stated in monetary figures and reflect the electric current balances, if any. A bookkeeper is very much required to manage multiple accounts and track the strengths of all of them. tick off besides Chart of Accounts, computer programetary Ledger, Ledger AccountabilityTaking responsibility for dos. An obligation to ones selfan obligation to lead a meaningful life, both in and out of the workplace, that is consistent with ones own respects. The chief executive officer was impress by the supervisors sense of accountability for everything that happened in his departmen t. gather in besides Behavior, Governance, Responsibility accounts receivable turnover Accounting The appendage of identifying, measuring, recording, and communicating financial information about a business or composition. Accounting information suffer be a helpful managerial and coronation aid in the decision-making process.The write up stanch was known and respected for the aptitude and uncompromising sense of integrity. let on in rise to power Accounting Noise, Public Accounting, buying Accounting Accounting Noise Complex rules that may affect the way a societys performance is related to the public. These rules do not affect the high societys true performance, simply the way that performance is reported. After a community has gone through a major change, it may be difficult for potential investors to cut through the accounting noise to discover how well the business is actually deported to perform. visualise alike Accounting, financial Statement or ReportAccou nts Payable Money or liabilities owed by a bulletproof to marketer, suppliers, or service providers. The secretary juggled the accounts collectible so that the small stanchs bankers bills were give every month within days of receiving the fees from their clients. reassure alike Balance Sheet, Liability, Supplier, Vendor Accounts receivable Money or liabilities due to a firm from customers for the purchase of register, goods, or services. Carried in the current-assets section of the firms balance sheet. The billing department sent out invoices on all accounts receivable that were not paid in full at the time of service.See too summations, Balance Sheet, Customer, Inventories Accounts receivable perturbation A measurement of how speedyly customers commit their bills. The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable. Their bank asked for the accounts receivable turnover report to measure how quickly their customers paid their bills. See overly Accounts Recei vable, denotation, Financial Ratios, Turnover A A accrual-based accounting Accrual-Based Accounting An accounting method in which income is reported when earned and expenses are reported when an obligation is make quite a than when gold is received or paid.Retail bloods and other businesses that sell products and stock inventory use accrual-based accounting. See besides Accounting, view askeeping, Expenses, Income Accrue Accumulate or join on over a uttermost of time. She chose to put her money into a CD rather than just into a savings account because interest would shine at a faster rate. See in like manner Depreciation, Expenses, Taxes Accrued Expenses Expenses provided to be paid collect expenses in a given power point that will be paid in the future. It was agreed that the accumulated expenses owed to the impartiality firm would be paid at the end of the trial.See also Accrue, Expenses, cessation Accrued Interest Interest yet to be paid accumulated interest in a given period that will be paid in the future. She opted to receive all accrued interest from her investments in one check at the end of the year. See also Accrue, Interest, gunpoint Accrued Taxes Taxes yet to be paid accumulated taxes that will be paid in the future. The accountant tracked the accrued taxes in order to ensure there was enough cash to pay them when they came due. See also Accrue, Taxes Accurate Correct and exact produces flawless work, generally as the result of pains winning care.The accountant was known for being detail oriented and accurate in every aspect of his job. See also Consistent, Quality work learning Acid Test Ratio A ratio of current assets minus inventories, accruals, and prepaid items to current liabilities that is used to take care a firms ability to meet current debt obligations. According to the acid sieve ratio, the firm was actually in very good financial figure out in spite of the unheralded quarterly losses. See also Assets, Liquid, sh ort Debt Acquisition Acquiring control of a business or company.The arouse companys primary goal was to staff its new learning quickly and well before it began losing money. See also Due Diligence, Integration, Merger, acquire Accounting, schema Acquisition Cost The cost of purchasing equipment before sales tax. The start-up bought much of its equipment slightly used in order to keep acquisition costs low. See also big(p) Expenses (CapEx), Hard Assets Acquittance A receipt indicating payment in full, freedom from a financial obligation. Every acquittance was kept on file in case questions arose later about the payment of the bills.See also Debt, Payments Across the carte Affecting all in an equal manner comes from the bare-ass York var. Exchange (NYSE) full-grown board, a large board on which stock nurses were once written, so when the majority of prices were up or down, the movement was shown across the board. Concern about the economy and rising prices cut consumer spending across the board, not just in the travel industry, over the summer. See also New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Stock Action Learning A process in which a group of people come together more or less regularly to help each other to learn from their consider.The company offered action learning programs as a way for senior management to lean on each other and junior management to receive mentoring. See also Action Plan, Group Processes, Teambuilding A action plan A Action Plan A list of tasks that needs to be carried out in order to achieve a larger butt may include other plans, activities, resources, and/or commitments. The action plan was kick the bucket and concise so that everyone on the project knew what steps needed to be taken in order to achieve success. See also Goals, Obstacles, TaskActionable An act, event, or evanescerence that carries legal grounds for basing a lawsuit. As offensive as the supervisors statements and behaviors had been, her attorney told her they were, unfortunately, not actionable. See also Arbitration, audit Activity List A list of the defined activities that need to be completed for a project or task within an action plan. The team was pleased that they had completed their activity list well enough in advance that the whole project moved forward preferably than expected. See also Planning, Project, TaskActivity Sequencing Identifying how activities affect each other and determining the shell order to perform them in order to complete the project. Although the missions suggested activity sequencing seemed reasonable on paper, it didnt take into account general delays expected by the technicians. See also Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT), Project, Time Management Ad Hoc A team, project, task force, or committee formed to address a specific issue or concern singular-in-purpose effort dealing with a particular organizational problem.The CEO created an ad hoc committee to investigate the charges of harassm ent. See also Organization, Project, Teams Adaptation to Change Methods and mechanisms that organizations use to react to internal and remote environmental changes. Businesses tend to survive daylong when their adaptations to change are flexible, open-minded, and already in place prior to major market fluctuations. See also Adapting, Change, Change Management, Organizations adjustment Adapting Capable of change from todays reality to a future state, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as change in response to new markets, globalization, and management changes. some nonprofit organizations had a hard time adapting to computerization in the 1980s and 1990s. See also Change, Flexible, Growth Addendum A supplement to a written document. The actor requested that an addendum spelling out the specific needs of his staff be added to the use up. See also Appendix, Communication Adhesion Contract A contract that generally contains nonnegotiable terms that usually favor the party presenting it. The circle was known for the outrageous clauses in the adhesion contract they required each venue to sign before they agreed to perform. See also Contract, letter of Intent (LOI), TermsAdhocracy A form of organization, usually with little or no structure, that allows for greater creativity and innovation around capturing opportunities, solving problems, and getting results. Once the company moved from a bureaucracy to an adhocracy, several of the program directors had a hard time changing from a very controlling management style to one where staff was allowed more input and flexibility. See also Bureaucracy, Cross-Functional Team, Management, Organization, Teams Adjustment A debit or credit to a observationholder or sellers account to correct a transaction error.When the womans coat didnt arrive in the promised amount of time, the barge in made an adjustment on her credit card to reflect the removal of shipping charges. See also Accounting, Credit, Credit Card, Debt A adminis trative expenses 10 A Administrative Expenses The expenses incurred in carrying out the activities listed in the management and organization section of the business plan. The assistant secretary had to be laid off in order to cut back on administrative expenses. See also Accounting, Business Plan, Expenses, Income Statement AdministriviaThe day-to-day workings of an office environment required by administrators Tasks that staff perform to maintain foster in an organization that are needed to keep things going forward or to fulfill management needs. The old secretary was invaluable to her boss because of her dexterity at dealing with administrivia. See also Administrative Expenses, Task advertising A tool or management resource for increasing product contraryiation and encouraging brand loyalty by communicating the features and benefits of a product/service through the use of radio, television, print, Internet, and other media.Advertising is a large part of any company or product s success. See also Benefits, Brand, Communication, Marketing Advertising-Based Model A business model in which a firm generates gross by charging advertisers for space (for example, in a magazine or on a meshwork site) or time (as in radio or TV). The weekly neighborhood newspaper was able to stay in business once it switched over to an advertising-based model. See also Advertising, Business-to-consumer (B to C or B2C), Business Model, Revenue, weather vane Page Advisory BoardA group of remote experts, typically three to six people, usually recruited by entrepreneurs to provide regular input and suggestions to management. The entrepreneurs brought in an advisory board early in the planning stages of getting the new company up and running. See also Entrepreneur, Goals, Planning, Vision agenda 11 Affiliate An organization, firm, or other entity with a kin with another company, peer, or larger entity. Few people realized the community clinic was actually an affiliate of the nation ally recognized hospital and was staffed by many of the same doctors.See also Control, Network, Relationships Affinity Group An organization made up of businesses (or representatives thereof) with common interests, such as an industry trade association or another group of entrepreneurs. It is important for young professionals to find and join an affinity group that will assist them in becoming lucky and growing in their chosen field. See also Trade Association After-Hours Trading Refers to stock trading that takes place outside the conventional trading hours of the major qualifys, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the NASDAQ Stock Market.As more people use the Internet for investment purposes, after hours trading is becoming more and more common. See also Stock, New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Transactions Aftermarket The trading activity in a security immediately after its initial offering to the public used to define the volatile time before prices stabilize or the subaltern market for upgrades, such as the automotive non-factory parts. Casual investors often await until the aftermarket has settled down before deciding whether to invest in a specific stock. orComputer companies send word make large sales based only when on the aftermarket when new technology that is desirable but not obligatory becomes available. See also jacket Market, Initial Public Offering (IPO), Investor, Marketing, credential Agenda A list of items, issues, things to be considered points to be discussed outline of topics to be discussed in a meeting. The agenda was so full, he wasnt sure if they would cover everything in the caterpillar tread of the hour-long meeting. See also Briefing, Kickoff Meeting, Meetings, muniment A 1 A aging of receivablesAging of Receivables An accounting method that provides management with information regarding a debts age or a method of estimating bad-debt losses by aging the accounts and then assigning a probability of collection to each classification. The accountant urged the billing department to track prominent fees because the aging of receivables indicated any accounts more than six months delinquent would be worthless. See also Accounts Receivable, Debt Agreement An understanding between two or more parties. May be formal or informal, legal or a gentlemens transcription.In many parts of the country, a handshake still creates as binding an agreement as a signed contract. See also Collective Bargaining, Confidentiality Agreement, Contract Alert Managers, executives, and employees who are observant and on the lookout. Aware, quick to understand the real importance and consequences of a situation or an occurrence. The staff of the advertising department had to be alert to the changing values and ethics of society in order to create effective campaigns. See also Human Resource, Observant Allegiance A commitment to a leader or organization that binds a party (intellectually or emotionally) to a course o f action.The business made it clear that its allegiance was to its customers and employees, even before that of the stakeholders. See also Commitment, Leadership, Loyalty, Stakeholders Alliance Any formal, inter-organizational, collaborative relationship with competitors or suppliers of complementary color products and services aimed at avoiding crippling capital investments and gaining market entry or core competencies. The owners of the start-up companies were excited about forming an alliance, secure in the knowledge that they could help each other grow.See also Collaborate, Relationship abbreviation 1 important Version Development-stage terminology that expresses that the development of a piece of computer software is in its early stages and may require much further development. An alpha displacement of a program is also known as a pilot interpreting, which can be tested for overall usability and raising effectiveness. Although the alpha version hadnt worked the way the designers had expected it to, the lessons learned from its failures were valuable in correcting the design flaws. See also Feasibility Study, Product Development AmbitiousIntent on advancing, enterprising, having great desire and determination to achieve a certain goal. An advancement in position, authority, earnings, or nature is usually the objective. The plan to expand the company throughout the Northeast was ambitious, but management thought it could be done based on projected sales and growth. See also Energetic, Motivated ambivalency encountering emotions or feelings about an individual, team, or organization mixed feelings lead to uncertainty or indecisiveness. The manager was ambivalent about his teams performance on the marketing campaign.See also Conflict, Indecisiveness, Leadership, Management, Uncertainty Amortization The tryst of a lump sum amount to contrasting time periods. any the paying off of debt in regular installments over a period of time or the deduction of capital expenses over a specific period of time. Loan companies set up an amortization schedule that allows businesses to pay off their debts slowly so they dont go under but, at the same time, ensure the lender does indeed get its money back in a timely manner. See also Capital Investments, Debt, Installment AnalysisThe action of taking something apart in order to take away it, such as financial analysis, competitive analysis, or strategic analysis. The analysis of the competing firms client list proved they were signing the clients everyone in town was hoping to bring on board. See also hawkish Analysis, bloke Analysis, Problem Solving, SWOT Analysis, Variance Analysis A 1 A anchor store or client Anchor Store or Client A branded store or client that provides an attraction to draw new customers. The presence of such an anchor increases the market potential for other businesses and makes adjacent locations more desirable for entrepreneurs.The mall closed within months after the two anchor stores moved out. See also Brand, Marketing Angel Capital Start-up money provided to entrepreneurs by friends, family, or wealthy individuals (often referred to as the 3 Fs friends, family, and fools) whose motives may be non-monetary as well as financial. The companys first round of finance was angel capital. See also Entrepreneur, Financing, Seed Capital, Venture Capital Angels Private investors, generally wealthy individuals who are former entrepreneurs or executives who invest in entrepreneurial companies.The young business community wanted angels for the company, not just for the monetary assistance but for the advice and experience they would bring to the table. See also Advisory Board, Angel Capital, Incubator, Investor, Venture Capital Animation Effects used in presentations to improve the audiences experience rapid sequential presentation of different graphics to create the illusion of motion. Even the most engaging speakers can be more effective with the u se of animation in their presentations. See also manifestation Slides, Visual Aid Annual Percentage respect (APR)An interest rate that states the true cost of gaining credit for the duration of the loan. Even an APR that is only half(a) a point lower than others can save a consumer a lot of money over the course of a loan. See also Credit, Interest, Loan applicant 1 Annual Report A document issued annually by public companies to their shareholders per Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulations includes information about a companys performance during the previous year, as well as managements view of the companys system for the future. Serious investors will pay very close attention to a companys annual report before investing.See also 10K, Communication, Financial Statement or Report, Investors Annual gross revenue Sales or revenue received during the period of a year, before any expenses are deducted, for providing the firms products and services. In a weak economy, s imply maintaining annual sales is often considered as much a success as increasing them would be in a strong economy. See also Income Statement, Revenue, Sales Antitrust Laws that prohibit agreements in restraint of trade, monopolization and attempted monopolization, anticompetitive mergers and associate schemes, and, in some circumstances, price discrimination in the sale of commodities.The mediocre laws apply to virtually all industries and to every level of business, including manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and marketing. Antitrust laws were established to help ensure every company has the opportunity to succeed or fail on its own merits, without being held back by larger, already established businesses. See also Entry Barriers, Monopoly, Predatory Pricing Appendix An addition to the end of a document. In a business or feasibility plan, it may include copies of product/service information, legal agreements, resumes of aste fortune owners, and so on.Although peop le tend to ignore the appendix of a document, it often contains important, albeit chipary, information. See also Communication, Contract Applicant One who is seeking work. Employers pry having a large applicant pool because it tends to increase the chances of finding the right person for the position. See also Employ, Employee A application 1 A operation A form to be filled out by a job candi see to it when seeking exercise, or the use of computer-based programs to process data for specific purposes. many a(prenominal) companies have applications online, which allows people to apply for positions with ease. or Since the business world has become computerized, having a working knowledge of several different applications is beneficial to job applicants. See also Applicant, actions Software, Data Processing Application Service Provider (ASP) Party that offers an outsourcing mechanism whereby it develops, supplies, and manages application software and hardware for its customers, thus freeing up customers internal IT resources.The application software resides on the vendors system and is accessed by users through a wind vane browser using HTML or by special-purpose client software provided by the vendor. Using an ASP can be risky because if the vendor goes under or closes, information can be wooly with very little, if any, warning to the customers. See also Client, Information Technology (IT), Server Application Software Software applications that are intended for end-users, such as database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Application software runs on top of system software.Application software can often be purchased to upgrade a computers capabilities. See also Application, Data Processing, Information Technology (IT) Appraisal A written document by a professional appraiser estimating the value or quality of an asset as of a given date or a performance evaluation of an employee. It is important to get a fair appraisal prior to purchasing a b ig ticket item. The company required yearly performance appraisals of all the employees. See also Employee, Promotion Appraise Estimating the value or determine the cost of an item or enterprise.When the situation was appraised objectively, moving the company out of the city really was the best course of action in the long run. See also Appraisal, evaluation arbitration 1 Appreciation An increase in the value of an asset. The storage area in property values expected in the neighborhood made buying even a small house an excellent investment. See also Assets, Capital Appreciation, valuation Appropriation The application of the payment of a sum of money, made by a debtor to his creditor, to one of several debts as money that has been set aside by formal action to pay some known or anticipated costs.The bookkeeper insisted on an accounting of the funds appropriated for each step of the loan repayment process because she feared the company was overreaching its financial abilities to pay back new loans. See also Creditor, Debt Arbitrage The opportunity to profit from a simultaneous purchase and sale of an asset a rare and short-lived situation because market forces will close the gap between the purchase and sale prices, thus ending the opportunity. The speculator realized she needed to take advantage of the arbitrage before the window of opportunity closed and the market prices equalized.See also Risk, Security A rbitrage is the opportunity to obtain a risk-free profit from the simultaneous purchase and sale of an asset, thus capturing the price differentials in similar or different markets. Such arbitrage opportunities are rare and short-lived as market forces will drive toward price convergence and eliminate such arbitrage opportunities. Arbitration A form of alternate dispute resolution in which a neutral third party hears the respective positions and renders a decision. The contract disputes were eventually resolved when the company and the union were order ed into arbitration.See also Conflict Resolution, Mediation A articles of incorporation 1 A Articles of Incorporation A document filed with the secretary of state of the state of incorporation detailing things such as a companys purpose, powers under state law, classes of securities to be issued, and the rights and liabilities of directors and shareholders. One of the first steps taken by a new business needs to be filing its articles of incorporation so that every step thereafter is legal. See also Board of Directors, Incorporate say The ability to express oneself distinctly able to speak effectively.The CEO was foiled to learn that as articulate as she had been during interviews, the new employee didnt have the skills or knowledge base to get the job done. See also Persuasive, Understanding Artificial Intelligence (AI) Using the power of a computer or network to improve the quality of management decisions, particularly interlinking strategic choices. Many spam blockers use AI t o filter out e-mail that is unsolicited, which in turn improves talent. See also Computers, Data Mining, dexterous System, Fuzzy Logic, Strategic Choices Asking Price The price an owner places on an asset he is willing to sell.The asking price is also viewed as a benchmark price where the buyer and seller can begin negotiations since an agreed-upon price has yet to be reached. During a housing thunder, it is not crotchety for sellers to get above the asking price on a property. See also Benchmark, Bid Price Aspirin Count Theory A market supposition that suggests that aspirin production and stock prices are mutually related, therefore when stock prices drop, aspirin production increases. The aspirin count theory may be based on an old wives tale but it certainly makes sense as well. See also Stock, Economics sset-based financing 1 Assertive The ability and willingness to speak up without hesitation, make a position known characterized by obstinate, often emphatic, statements an d actions. A good supervisor is able to juggle being assertive with diplomacy skills. See also Attitude, Positive Assessment An official estimate of the value of something for the purpose of deliberation property tax. Based on the assessment, the house was worth far more than the young couple could afford to pay for it. See also Taxes, Valuation Asset Lending The loaning of money on the value of assets offered as security.The lender is protected from loss by the liquidation value of the assets. Although she generally didnt like asset lending, the antiques presented as security were worth the risk she incurred by offering the couple the loan. See also Assets, Loan Asset Redeployment The strategic relocation of enterprise assets in order to increase profitability through improved competitive advantage. The small company stubborn to try asset redeployment to help bring in more money so layoffs wouldnt be required. See also Assets, militant Advantage, Strategy Asset Turnover A company s replete(p) sales divided by its total assets.This ratio measures the overall efficiency with which a company uses its assets to produce sales. The higher the measure, the more efficient the business model. The investors were pleased to see the asset turnover on the rise after three straight quarters of watching the ratio fall. See also Assets, Financial Ratios, Profit Margin, Revenue, Turnover Asset-Based Financing Financing an enterprise by using its hard assets for collateral to acquire a loan of qualified size with which to finance operations. Asset-based financing can be a beneficial or a risky choice depending on the strength of the company being taken over.See also Assets, Financing, Leveraged Buyout (LBO), Loan A assets 0 A Assets Anything on a companys books considered as having a positive monetary value. Assets are reported on a firms balance sheet. Although the firm seemed financially secure, the accountants were beginning to become have-to doe with about its dwindli ng assets. See also Balance Sheet, Return on Assets (ROA) fate To transfer a right or interest to another person. On his twenty-fifth birthday, the young man was assigned his half of his fathers share in the business. See also Project, Resource AssumptionsFactors that are believed to be true and affect business planning. Assumptions may impact risk and should continually be documented and validated. Organizations make assumptions about many internal and external factors, including customers, competitors, industry evolution, regulation, technology, and the organizations resources, competencies, and cash flows. Inaccurate assumptions about the dot com company industry led to the bubble bursting in the 1990s. See also Business Plan, Organizations, Resource At-Will Employment An employment policy that allows employees and employers to terminate the working relationship at any time.Many seasonal and part-time employees are hired with an at-will employment understanding. See also Empl oyee, last Attrition A reduction in the number of employees through retirement, resignation, or death. Some downsizing may occur through attrition, part others take place more aggressively through layoffs and terminations. See also Downsizing, Employee, Retirement, Rightsizing average selling price 1 size up To examine an individuals or organizations records in an attempt to verify accuracy and legal compliance. Insurance companies may audit clinic records at least once a year, provided they offer reasonable notice.See also Accounting, Adjustment, Due Diligence Authentication The process of confirming a users identity commonly done through the use of passwords or digital certificates. Most credit card companies use security questions to ensure authentication of the caller. See also Authorization, Information Technology (IT), Password potency Permission or approval to make decisions for team, organization, or firm the power to command actions be taken legitimacy to lead. In order to be effective, managers need to have the authority to make decisions without double-checking with the CEO or president.See also Adhocracy, Delegation, Organizations Authorization Validating the authenticity of something or someone approval of a bank card transaction by the card-issuing bank for a undertake dollar amount. Authorization is a critical step in processing credit cards for purchase of merchandise online. See also Authentication, assert Card, Charge-Back, Credit, E-Commerce, Gateway, Power of Attorney, Sales Transaction Average Annual Growth Rate A measure of the rate of change in a firms annual sales. The average annual growth rate can indicate the overall health or weakness of a company.See also Net expense, Revenue, Sales Average Selling Price (ASP) The average price for all items sold during a particular time frame, usually mensurable for a specific category or a single sellers sales. Online auctions benefit customers because products can be bought well below the ASP. See also Distribution, Price, Retailer A award A Award A final decision that is rendered in favor of one party or something that is given on the terra firma of merit or need. Many people believe there should be no upper limit to what juries may award victims in malpractice suits. orThe team was thrilled to win the award, especially in light of the strength of the national competition. See also Grant, Honor B Baby Boomers Consumers born from 1943 to 1960, characterized as experimental, individualistic, free spirited, social causeoriented, misanthropic of government, and generally cynical. As the largest generation cohort in America, they have rule the markets attention and driven product development. Many ad campaigns are directed toward baby boomers reluctance to admit that they are aging. See also Cohort, Market Research, Marketing Back OfficeAdministrative functions that support the processing of online minutes such as e-mail confirmations, shipping and tax calculations , packing jiggery-pokery creation, and report generation. For every online store, there is someone in front of a computer handling back office issues. See also Administrivia, General and Administrative (G&A) Expenses, Overhead Back Order Part of an order that was not filled when the initial shipment was made. Back orders are usually shipped when the items become available, without requiring the customer to place a reorder. See also Backlog, CustomerBack Pay allowance that an employee is entitled to when the employer is found to be in violation of standard employment practices. He received his back pay after going for an broad period of time without a paycheck. See also Employee, Wage bailout clause Backdating Placing a date on a document that is prior to the date the document is actually wasted up a process that makes a document effective from an earlier date. Both parties agreed to backdate the contracts to the day they had first discussed the arrangement. See also Agreement, Contract, Stock Option BacklogCustomer orders on products that are planned for shipment or delivery in the future. The clerk was able to check the backlog and tell the customer when his equipment would be delivered. See also Back Order, Sales Backup A copy of a file or application that is kept separate from the received as a precaution against data loss in the event the original is lost or destroyed or (two words) to make a copy of original work. It is vital to keep a backup of all documentation stored on a hard drive. or He didnt back up the data, so we lost last weeks work. See also Computer, Data, Data Recovery, Software prominent Credit The result of a company or individual being late or defaulting on bill payment. He was concerned about qualifying for the loan because of the bad credit he had accrued while he was in college. See also Credit, Default Bad Debt Money that is still owed on an account and is past due a debt that cannot be recovered. Once the firm declared bankruptc y, its lenders had to write off their accounts as bad debt. See also Debt, Insolvency, Risk Bailout Clause A clause in a contract that allows a party to get out of the contract. They decided to accept the bailout clause despite some reservations.See also Cancellation, Contract, Negotiation, Termination B balance sheet B Balance Sheet A statement of the book value of a business, corporation, or individual at a particular date. The balance sheet provides a snapshot of the organizations assets, liabilities, and net worth or shareholder equity. Her business acumen allowed her to interpret a companys balance sheet more accurately than most, so she knew what was a good investment even when others befuddled the opportunity. See also Assets, Financial Statement or Reports, Fiscal Year, Income Statement, Liability, Net Worth, Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement Balanced ScorecardA process that enables organizations to translate a companys vision and strategy into implementation by working from four perspectives financial, customer, business process, and learning and growth. This not only allows the monitoring of present performance, the method also tries to capture information about how well the organization is positioned to perform in the future. The balanced scorecard enabled the consultants to understand where the company wanted to go in the future and help its staff understand how to get there. See also Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Metrics, Organizations, Strategy, Teams, Vision BankA financial world a commercial institution licensed as a liquidator of deposits a business for keeping, lending, exchanging and issuing money. A bank-issued card that authorizes the holder to receive bank services and that often functions as a debit card is an important tool for any business. See also Bank Statement Bank Card A form of payment using either credit or debit from a bank account any valid card issued by a card association or other card-issuing organization that is prese nted in payment for goods and services or to obtain cash advances. Many people appreciate being able to use a bank card instead of having to carry cash.See also Bank, Credit Card Bank Statement A record of a firms account that is regularly provided by the bank, either in print or online. Our accountant reconciles the firms bank statement each month. See also Bank, Cash Basis Accounting, Deposit Transactions breastwork Bankruptcy A state in which an entity is unable to meet its obligations and seeks philander protection from its debtors. If the bankrupt entity is a firm, the ownership of the firms assets is transferred from the stockholders to the bondholders. Shareholders are the last people to get paid if a company goes bankrupt.Secure creditors forever get first grabs at the proceeds from liquidation. Also called Chapter 11. The company decided to file for bankruptcy rather than to accumulate more debt and destroy its reputation even further. See also Assets, Creditor, Debt, S tockholder or Shareholder pennant Ad Internet advertising using graphics on a weathervane page to direct a viewers attention to a product or service. Banners link to further information and Web pages. The online store charged other businesses a small fee to have banner ads on its Web site. See also Advertising, Hyperlink, Internet, Web Page, field Wide Web (WWW) Bar ChartA schedule that shows project activities with associated start and shutting dates. The bar chart was posted where everyone involved with the project could see it and be sure to stay on target. See also Activity Sequencing, Business Plan, Critical Path Method (CPM), Gantt Chart, Milestone, Projects Bar Code An identifying mark made from a pattern of bars and spaces. A bar code is generated for individual items based on the item name/number or stockkeeping unit (SKU) on the item record. If a bar code is ripped or missing, it can be difficult for clerks to find the price of an item. See also Inventories, inventory ing Control, RetailerBarrier Conditions that create difficulty for an organization to meet a goal or objective something that prevents progress or success toward an end. There is a long-standing debate about how much of a barrier race and gender are in the corporate world. See also Entry Barriers, Obstacles B calling B Barter The exchange of one commodity for another without the exchange of money. Although the project had very limited assets, the team met its goals through a handicraft arrangement. See also Commodity, Microeconomics Baseline The agreed-upon plan to which all subsequent plans will be compared for cost, schedule, and performance.The initial product was so successful that everyone agreed it would be unfair to use it as a baseline for the projects that were scheduled to follow. See also Business Plan, Performance, Schedule Basis The cost or value of an asset as adjusted for tax purposes. Securities also have a basis, which is determined by the price an investor pays for the security plus any other incremental fees. The basis is then used to determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is eventually sold. She had bought stock at a high price, but because she had been given more shares as a gift, the basis was very reasonable.See also Capital Gains, Taxes Behavior A manner, action, or set of actions performed by a person under specified circumstances that expose some skill, knowledge, or attitude a way of conducting oneself. The goal of training is to teach new employees the proper behavior in any situation, including unexpected or stressful ones. See also Attitude, Knowledge, Skill Beliefs Assumptions and convictions that a person holds to be true regarding people, concepts, or things an organizations understanding of cause-effect relationships. Many people choose to work for organizations that share their political, social, or environmental beliefs.See also Behavior, Convictions, Mindset, Organizations big, hairy, audaciou s goals Benchmark A standard of reference used for affinity a process of comparing practices within a company to the very best practices in some of the very best organizations, within and outside the industry a process for measuring best practice performance and comparing the results to corporate performance in order to identify opportunities for improvement. The raise success of the holiday ad campaign was the benchmark by which all other campaigns would be measured. See also Competitive Advantage, Core Competencies, Metrics, Strategy BenefitsA collection of advantages solutions offered to customers through a companys products/services the advantages that are inherent in a product/service or that customers expect to receive and that motivate customers to purchase it. An effective ad campaign communicates the benefits of buying a specific product well enough that consumers believe they need the product. See also Communication, Marketing, Sales Bid An offer of money in exchange fo r an item that is for sale. Once the national chain made a bid for the shops, the medium-sized businesses dropped out because they knew they couldnt match the prices the larger company could offer.See also Asking Price, Bid Price Bid Price A price offered by a prospective buyer to begin the negotiation process of buying a security or business asset. Although the firm had been in his family for years, the man was tempted by the increasingly high bid prices being offered by the competitors. See also Bid, Negotiation Big, Hairy, Audacious Goals (BHAGs) A goal, vision, or plan that causes the organization to stretch to obtain the result a challenge by leadership to an organization to fulfill a mission or strategy. By setting BHAGs, companies often accomplish far more than if they had set goals that would be expected to be met easily.See also Catalytic Mechanisms, Goals, Strategy B bill of sale B Bill of Sale A written agreement stating the terms by which ownership of goods is transferr ed to another party. It is wise to get a bill of sale for any large purchase item you cannot simply carry away. See also Agreement, Term Sheet Bit The ingrained informational building block used by all computers. A bit is a single character in a binary number. The digital camera images contained 3 million bits of information. See also Computer, Data, Information intercommunicate A journal that is available on the Web frequently updated, chronological entries on a particular topic.This word was created from the combination of the words Web log. These days, teenagers are as likely to host a blog in order to keep in touch with their friends as they are to use the phone. See also Communication, Internet, Link, Media, Web Page, World Wide Web (WWW) Board of Directors A group of people elected by a corporations shareholders to oversee the management of the company. A board often consists of executive and nonexecutive directors. Executive directors play an active part in running the com pany, while non-executive directors are there to offer advice.The program supervisors reported to the board of directors on a quarterly basis. See also Chairman of the Board (COB), master(prenominal) Executive Officer (CEO), Strategy Bonds Debt securities that pays the holder a fixed sum on a regular schedule for a fixed term. Bonds are issued by corporations and governments they come in a wide variety of types. In the past, the United States government has issued war bonds in order to maintain a cash flow during wartime. See also Debt, Security bookkeeper Bonus A sum of money or equivalent incentives given to employees in addition to base compensation.Bonuses can also come in the form of unnecessary vacation time, gifts, and other nonmonetary awards. Even when business was slow, the store owner made sure his staff received holiday bonuses to show his appreciation for their hard work. See also Compensation, Intangible Rewards, Perquisite or Perk Rewards Book Inventory The balance of the inventory account after all introduction inventory is added and the cost of outgoing goods is subtracted. The book inventory type of perpetual inventory system is usually verified annually by taking a physical inventory and reconciling any discrepancies. See also Accounting, Inventories Book taxThe value of an asset as reflected in the books of the company owning the item. The book value of the items at auction could never accurately represent the sentimental value several of the pieces had to the buyers. See also Accounting, Assets, Balance Sheet, Liability, Net Worth Book-to-Bill Ratio A measure of sales trends of a company or overall industry. The ratio divides the amount of new orders booked by the value of the products shipped each month (or billed). The strength of the technology industry can be measured in part by watching the book-to-bill ratio every month. See also Ratio Analysis, Revenue, Sales BookkeeperA person who records the accounts or minutes of a busines s in a general ledger. The store owner hired a bookkeeper to handle finances when she opened her second shop. See also Accounting, General Ledger B bookkeeping 0 B Bookkeeping The practice or profession of recording the accounts and transactions of a business through a systematic and handy record of money transactions in order to show the condition of a business enterprise. Having an accurate and trustworthy bookkeeping staff is vital to the success of any large business. See also Accounting, Bookkeeper Bookmark A marking or address that identifies a Web site or Web page.Most Web browsers allow users to save and organize bookmarks as a convenient way to mark Web sites for future reference. Most browsers have a section called favorites where users can bookmark their favorite sites for easy access. See also Application Software, Web Page, World Wide Web (WWW) Boom A period when business expands and the economy experiences rapid growth and rising prices. During such a period, there i s an increased demand for goods and services and unemployment rates fall. The boom that resulted after the election showed the countrys faith in the new presidents economic policies.See also Demand, Economics, Leading Indicators Boot mob An indoctrination program in some aspect of leadership or management going to such a program means being immersed in a discipline or topic with a group or team of cohorts. The board recommended everyone on the management team attend parent camp on cultural differences before the expansion into Europe took place. See also Leadership, Teams Bootstrapping A management approach that uses internal methods to generate money to be used for a proposed project or venture a low start-up, pay-as-you-go approach to launching businesses.Many managers believe that bootstrapping rather than waiting until a new company has more than enough start-up monies helps create a sense of excitement and energy that bonds the staff and makes the company stronger in the long run. See also Seed Capital, Start-Up, Venture Capital brainstorming 1 capital of Massachusetts Consulting Group Box (BCG Box) A framework for analysis and communication strategy for a business with a portfolio of products, services, programs, strategic business units or companies. The consultants used a BCG Box to present the analysis of the programs.See also Cash Cow, Competitive Advantage, Dog, Harvest, Strategic Business Unit (SBU), Strategy Bottleneck Anything that slows down or impedes by creating an obstruction or that halts the progress or flow of an activity, process, or operation in an organization. The computer glitch caused a bottleneck throughout the entire production line. See also Barriers, Obstacle Bottom-Up An estimating proficiency in which every activity is individually estimated and then added together to determine the total project estimate. Each department was required to provide the CEO and the treasurer with a bottom-up budget every year.See also Budget, Busi ness Plan, Decentralized, Organizations, Planning, Structure Bottom Line The line in a financial statement that shows net income or loss. Based on the bottom figure on a profit-and-loss statement, it refers to an organizations most important measure of success profits. Even established businesses must keep an eye on the bottom line in order to continue to be successful. See also Income Statement, Loss, Profit, Valuation Brainstorming A management technique used to foster ideas, solve problems, set goals, establish priorities, and make assignments for employee accomplishments.As a semistructured creative group activity, this method is used most often in ad-hoc business meetings to come up with new ideas for innovation or improvement. The committee came up with several good fundraising ideas in one brainstorming session. See also Creativity, Innovation B brand B Brand The symbolic configuration of key information that differentiates a product or service from the competition. Brands matter because companies act just like people when it comes to evaluating what products or services to buy. Many teenagers can identify popular brands faster than they can identify current world leaders.See also Brand Equity, Brand Loyalty, Brand Management, Customer Loyalty, Marketing, Value Proposition A brand and branding today is a strategic tool that helps the supplier cut through the morass of the market, get noticed, and connect with the customer on many levels and in ways that matter. Consumers are drawn to brands ir thinking(prenominal) benefits (status, prestige, affinity, self-security). Business customers specify and purchase based on rational drivers (pricing, product performance, metrics). Brand Equity The total or intrinsic value of a brand.Awareness of a firms products or services are measured by consumer goodwill, l

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Globalization in Canada

globalisation in Canada Canada is considered to be one of the biggest countries worldwide, in time as far as it gets from another(prenominal) countries, globalization seems to have a strong impact on the people regardless of what it offers from products and/or run from abroad, it may seem to have taken some of Canada away to the quiet of the world too.Globalization is affecting most of the aspects that control life in Canada, from genial aspects, to frugal aspects, also r each(prenominal)ing to as far as to semipolitical aspects, and that may have pushed us ten steps ahead, yet it has blind us through a few. This has resulted in separating people from each other, where as the immigration of people to Canada is now separating the people of Canada from each other (Gerges, 2006), for example, myopic immigrants live in poor communities while other Canadians with more resources (money, land, investments tc. ) argon moving to better and newer suburbs by themselves. (Gerges, 2006) One other issue adding to the peoples fears is that they argon afraid that foreigners are going to take recognition for what Canadians did, just ilk what happened with Alexander Graham Bell, where he conducted most of research and work on the telephone in Canada, and now the United States of America is taking credit that the telephone has been made there. Gerges, 2006) As David Kilgour, (2000), says in his website that globalization aims for a borderless world, this has rattling resulted in providing ease in laws affecting foreign imports and international trade, which in return provided more choice for Canadians as consumers, leading to higher satisfaction. (Daniels, 1996) it has direct to forming a world government to normalize the existing interaction among countries, (EconomyWatch), change the rights of countries in addition to the bonds betwixt each.According to a discussion paper by Ronald Daniels, (1996), investors are now free from abiding by Canadian laws regarding ma nufacturing, and trustworthy issues, and are now free to move their factories and/or companies to other locations, which negatively affects Canadian exports and international sales. Globalization, however, has decreased unemployment in Canada since most foreign companies extend remote of? ces and showrooms in Canada, resulting in employment of the people, eventu anyy helping the economical aspects of the people, and ? nally the country itself.To some people, globalization seems to have a tightening load on the people of Canada (Gerges, 2006), but in my point of view, I cogitate that due to globalization, all the countries, including Canada, are now in rapport with each other, in addition to business being connected and intertwined, Canada is now qualified on other countries, likewise all the countries on each other and Canada, yet it has helped in making Canada more independent, and it has strengthened relations between people, where Canada and its people are known for their ho spitality, and their welcoming to incompatible cultures, different people, and different mentalities from all over the world. This has resulted in strengthening the morals of people, and the principle of rectitude in between people. Globalization has not only helped in doing all this, but it made Canada what is it now a place for and with everything, and everyone.REFERENCES Gerges, Andrew. (2006) Effects of Globalization on Canada. Docstoc. folk 18, 2011, from http//www. docstoc. com/docs/21489192/Effects-of-Globalization-on-Canada Daniels, Ronald. (1996) Canadian Corporate Governance Policy Options. assiduity Canada. September 18, 2011, from http//www. ic. gc. ca/eic/site/eas-aes. nsf/eng/ra01011. html Kilgour, David. (2000) Canada and Globalization. David Kilgour. September 18, 2011, from http//www. david-kilgour. com/secstate/globali3. htm Stanley St. Labs. Effects of Globalization. EconomyWatch. September 18, 2011, from http// www. economywatch. com/economics-theory/globaliz ation/effects. html

Instinct and circumstance

Buber believes, that then I of the gay is double, and relative to the relationships into which it enters. The I that replies to thou is vastly contrary from the I that replies to It. Every piece of saying I is an act of creation I in genius of these ways. I-It is any being as experience, analytic, I-Thou is the being as a relationship, synthetic. There is nonhing in particular to be know about the Thou, it can only be understood in its single and not known. We see it clearly and in time cannot tell the details.I-Thou comes before I-It, it is the elemental main word. It is the first comprehension of the Other. But I-Thou is doomed to be come I-It as we familiarize ourselves with it and find a utilitarian glide path to the Other. And yet I-It may become I-Thou if the scrutinizing soldiery chooses to further the relationship and not look at the details of the one with who he is interacting, but at its essence. Still, it is impossible to live in the I-Thou mode constantly, f or it is being only in the present and paying attention only to the present.Deep and essential it may be, and yet fickle and does not bode well for survival. As Buber puts it, The human being cannot live without the It. But the one who lives only with the It is not a human being, as these few fickle moments argon the most blot manifestation of what makes us human our ability to dialog directly. A ripening civilization means a growing world of It, because each in the raw civilization gathers within itself the It of the previous culture.It is usu in ally falsely called a offset of spiritual life, but this is not true spiritual life is the realm of the I-Thou, a reply to the Absolute, while the growth of cognitive capacity in general diminishes the capability for having a true Relationship. The I-It word is nothing bad, unless it attempts to take the place of its rightful counterpart, as one is useless without the other. If one divides the spheres of interest of the Thou and I t, he will get communities with nothing in common on one hand and feelings without substance on the other, a divided and wistful existence.Buber speaks of both opposite pairs of granting immunity and destiny and of necessity and fate. The first function to I-Thou, the mho to I-It. Destiny is a measure of self-actualization only the person who has achieved freedom and understood what he is and what he truly desires can find his destiny. On the other hand, he who gives in to the laws of necessity and causality and does not act from the very depths of his being discounting causality meets the jaws of fate as his form of existence.He is the toy dog of the forces beyond him, while the man who follows his destiny rides the waves. Any culture principally starts on the impulse of I-Thou and declines on I-It, as does the human being. Buber differentiates between the pass on and the self-will. The first is the grand impulse to meet with ones destiny, to participate in the dialog. The second is merely the fickle desires of the limited human being, the lesser will controlled by instinct and circumstance. It is up to every human to choose what path he will take.This is the difference between individuality and personality, between pecking ones boundaries by creating more of them or by destroying them the result, in the end, is one and the same, but how different the experience It is the choice between living in a somebody world or of mingling even but momentarily with eternity itself. By relating the boundaries of the I-Thou one shapes them, as well, and creates them in a living response to outside circumstance, in dialog with it.By putting up walls in the I-It relationship, one distances oneself from the world, and is unable to react to any situation at hand, he may merely remember and try to act according to experience. There is no external difference between how the men in I-Thou and in I-It live. both(prenominal) interact with the outside world, the man in I-Thou does not stop seeing the differences between things, lost in dialog. The difference is internal. For the man in I-Thou it is all a part of one living dialog. For the man in I-It, things are separate and only vaguely related.The man in I-Thou is interdependent on his dialog with the Absolute, but the Absolute is dependent on him, as well. The man in I-It thinks himself free but is dependent upon a thousand things. These two states are strangely interrelated. The stronger the It takes its hold on the I, the stronger the epiphanies the personal relationship of the I-Thou cast brings. Only through the greatest darkness will there be the greatest light, only through the loss of the word dialog, only by going to the edges of fate can we know freedom, and through causality we learn the ways of destiny. Such are the cycles of the world in its eternal revolution.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Strategic Plan Part 1

Strategic Plan Part 1 Malissa Love-Virgil BUS/475 exhibit 12, 2013 Victor De Jesus Strategic Plan Part 1, Conceptualizing a military control puny conference Scoops mission is to provide the wellnessiest homemade scrap ointment at the same time as supporting the young person in the topical anaesthetic neighborhood. elflike confederacy Scoops offers two free scoops of crank skip to the little league b every(prenominal) players after his or her ball game. Little union Scoops, aside from management, only employs students from the local high teach, providing a development experience for students preparing to leave high school.Organization Vision A romance narration is sometimes called a picture of your company in the future however its so much more than that. Your vision statement is your inspiration, the textile for all your strategic planning. A vision statement may concur to an entire company or to a single division of that company. Whether for all or part of an face , the vision statement answers the question, Where do we want to go? What you ar doing when creating a vision statement is articulating your dreams and hopes for your business.It reminds you of what you are trying to kind (Vision Statement,2013). At Little League Scoops, we provide homemade banner tasting ice emollient while fostering reasoned activities in our neighborhood youth. Little League Scoops accepts the healthiest homemade ice cream tonic daily for those in the surrounding areas. The primary goal of Little League Scoops, other(a) than to buy the farm a sturdy long-term company in a small town, is to promote sizable activities in the children by back up them to maintain strong activities throughout the pass vacation.Little League Scoops believes that by promoting healthy activities in children, we create healthy adults with healthy habits. Keeping children busy or else of setting them in front of tv set games will aid in lowing childhood obesity as well as l aziness. Guiding set The area that in which Little League Scoops resides is not wealthy in terms of monetary value. Little League Scoops is looking to maintain healthy business long term, exclusively it also wants to foster abundant relationships with the community.Little League Scoops provides competitive prices for homemade healthy ice cream for anyone who is not a little league ball player and free scoops for those who are. Little League Scoops believes it is the responsibility of the organizations at bottom a community to foster good will. Providing inducing for the youth to reside active is how Little League Scoops intends to become a predominate company in the surrounding areas. As the name of the organization grows, surrounding areas will be invited to join in the free scoops program for the little league teams in those townships.Guiding the Organizations Strategic heraldic bearing People have different beliefs around what is right, wrong or inconsequential, and so it is critical that companys build some foundational beliefs in employees to make sure his or her decisions are in alignment with the organization. A companys mission, vision and values are that foundation. They guide decision making by twist common beliefs and understanding among employees.When a strong mission, clear vision and flesh out values are implemented, an organization will begin to eliminate face-to-face preference, ensuring that critical decisions are ethically sound and consistent in come out (Decision Making The 3 Foundations Of Business Decision Making Mission, Vision, Values,2013). Little League Scoops mission is to provide the healthiest homemade ice cream at the same time as supporting the youth in the local neighborhood. Little League Scoops believes that by promoting healthy activities in children, we create healthy adults with healthy habits.Combining the mission, the vision, and the values of Little League Scoops, the organization will affair these driving fo rces to maintain the strategic direction and become an icon housed within a small community. Addressing Customer Needs and Achieve Competitive good Summertime brings a need for cooling refreshments. churl cream has incessantly been a favorite among Americans. The U. S. ice cream industry generated total revenues of $10 billion in 2010, with take-home ice cream sales epresenting the largest constituent of the market, generating revenues of $6. 8 billion or 67. 7 percent of the markets overall value. Frozen dairy production follows a clear seasonal pattern. Summer is the unchallenged season for eating ice cream and other related products. Production kicks up in March and April to fill sell and foodservice pipelines in the late spring and early summer. June is the highest production month of the year, but production remains strong through August to satisfy summer demand. (Ice Cream Sales & Trends,2013). Providing the community with delicious and healthy ice cream serves two purpo ses. The first purpose is the refreshing coolness of a delicious ice cream. The second purpose is providing healthy ice cream is beneficial to those who like ice cream but are health conscious. Little League Scoops makes all its ice cream fresh severally day. Hired to help make and serve all the delicious flavors are high school juniors and seniors looking for job experience prior to departure high school.Little League Scoops believes that if opportunities are provided for the youth, they will in turn become responsible adults. The competitive advantage that Little League Scoops has over competing ice cream parlors are (1) Providing healthy homemade ice cream, (2) hiring high school students and teaching them how to become responsible workers, (3) providing opportunities for the communitys youth to ride out active by rewarding them with free scoops, (4) always keeping the youth as priority. ConclusionOther ice cream parlors may offer a larger array of flavors however, Little Lea gue Scoops smaller assortment is always freshly homemade. There is no comparison to homemade ice cream at competitive prices. There is no comparison to encouraging the youth to stay fit and active. Providing a healthy refreshing treat after a ball game will keep the children eager to participate in summertime activities, instead of sitting in front of a video game. No price can be placed on the health of the future. Todays youth are tomorrows leaders.Encouraging them today will showing them they can do anything they put their minds to. References Vision Statement. (2013). Retrieved from http//sbinfocanada. about. com/od/businessplanning/g/visionstatement. htm ratiocination MAKING The 3 Foundations of Business Decision Making Mission, Vision, Values. (2013). Retrieved from http//newdirectionsconsulting. com/4579/blog/the-3-foundations-of-business-decision-making-mission-vision-values-2/ Ice Cream Sales Trends. (2013). Retrieved from http//www. idfa. org/newsviews/media-kits/ice-c ream/ice-cream-sales-and-trends/

The Effects of Power and Fear on a Government

The Effects of Power and Fear on a Goernment Fear is wiz of the few emotions everybody feels at approximately layer in their lives. From their environment to the draws that were in charge thither were many things for the boys to be business organizationful of. noble of the Flies, by William Gilding is approximately a group of boys stranded on an Island during World War II. They induce to deal with exp unmatchablent peels and situations they would puzzle never thought of. In schoolmaster of the Flies, the destructive indi bay windowt skin between the primary characters mirrors the power struggle betweenHitler and the Jews during World War II, and the current dictator Basher al- drear and his citizens in Syria. passkey of the Flies represents a political each(prenominal)egory be courtship close to of the characters represent an verbotenline idea of government. Many raft who have corking leadership attri justes but have a hard time with their display struggle, hoggish is Ralph advisor, soul who is unable to rule beca spend of his own social and physical shortcomings (Winnfield). Nowadays appearance has become a huge part of the society at hand. sort helps a society decide what it wants to be like as whole or so as ho to follow.Struggling with appearance Is not the exactly Issue, It Is withal try with standing up for yourself. Which In the volume It Is shown that porcine struggles with this. Then went on piggy, that boy- I forgot your talking too such(prenominal) state dogshit Merrier. boot out up, Fatty. Laughter arose and boorish was silent (Gilding 21). In a society in that location are many people just like Piggy. There are so many great leadership characteristics in people. The problem is if that Pearson behind not stand up for themselves or any of their beliefs none of the great characteristics matter.This shows owe Lord of the Flies represents a political anyegory because It shows how some of the characters Like Pi ggy represent an abstract Idea of government In the book. In addition to the characters representing government they in any case act quasi(prenominal)ly to prehistorical and current political figures in the world. Most people at some point In time have a chance at power, if they choose to take it they will roughly likely lose It in the end as well Even turds power Is Illusory or at least temporary, vanishing the moment an adult authority arrives on the island (Olsen). In this it is seen that the power Jack had elates to many figures in the world.The power Jack had though is instantly taken a centering when someone else with higher authority arrives. This happens in all the time in the solid world as well. In the book it adds on to the same situation even more so Whoso old geezer here asked the officer? I am said Ralph loudly. A little(a) boy with the pair of spectacles started forward then changed his mind and stood nevertheless (Gilding 148). It is clearly shown that Ja ck loses the power he had quite quickly. This has happened to those in the real world, who thought they would never be run out of rower, such as biddy Hitler.As seen the characters in Lord of the Flies act similarly to old and current political figures in our world. In Lord of the Flies there is a very similar situation when Jack is put in declare of the island and the rest of the boys, Just like when Doll Hitler was put in charge of Germany and its people. At some point in everybodys lives they will most(prenominal) likely want to be in charge of something or be a leader of some sort, Seen in this light, Hitler thought the only focussing to prevent Germany from losing again was to eliminate the impure groups from society.He also knew the only counseling he could accomplish this is if he rose to power (Doll 1). In Lord of the Flies Jack thinks a part like Hitler. When most people hear the name Hitler the first thing that comes to most minds is a dictator in Germany who kille d Jews. This is true, but the reason behind that was Just because he wanted power. Hitless strong desire for power is a lot like Jacks. They both Just wanted to rule something which in their mooring it was people. Arrogance is a big reason for people absent power I ought to be chief said Jack with simple arrogance, because IM chapter chorister and caput boy.I can also sing C Sharp said intertwine (Gilding 228). Jack obviously thought he was better than everybody else and was very arrogant. It was one thing that some of the boys didnt like about him. Hitler was the same way, he normally thought no one was better than him and if he did he got rid of them quite quickly. Arrogance only got Jack and Hitler so far. Clearly shown the similar situation of Jack and Hitler macrocosm put in control shows the similarities of their leadership. Doll Hitler was a dictator during World War II, the character Jack acts much likeHitler in the book by emphasizing the strong desire of power and i ntolerance towards another(prenominal)s. In life some people think the only way to fix certain problems is to completely get rid of them Hitler apply government policies based on anti-Semitism and racism. These policies became more severe over time and led to the extermination of the Jews, racial minorities and other groups (Dolll). In Lord of the Flies it is seen that Jack does this quite often. He doesnt really bring forth any thought to what he is doing unless he really wants it done.For instance when Jack took Piggy as a really different errors and not in a good way. Eventually Jack got his way and Piggy died. Hitler does this with the Jews. He wanted the people who he thought were perfect and those people were not the Jews. So because he thought the Jews were the problem he started to kill them off. In the book we not only see Jack treating Apply harshly but he also treats some of the other boys the same way Im chief yelled Jack. Viciously, with full intention, he hurled hi s spear at Ralph. The point tore the skin and flesh over that Jack is willing to shock people in order to get what he wants.This is such a moment where Jack showed the power he thought he had to the boys. It also gave the boys a reason to fear him. Jack was using this fear to control the boys much like Hitler. Fear can cause people to do unbelievable things including follow and listen to unwise rulers or leaders. This adds to the desperate wanting of power and intolerance towards others. Another Situation very similar to the one the boys are put into due to Jack is more current, the power struggle between Basher al-Sad and the harsh way he treats his citizens in Syria.Most dictators are harsh, venomous and will try and do anything to keep heir place deposit muff deficiency to show that you are strong, that you are a leader. You need to crush in the first moment any signs of inverse, resentment, or independence. As well as causing the people to fear you said Sad (Basher 2). Bash er al-Sad uses the harsh way he treats his citizens to produce fear so that no one will overtake his place as being leader in Syria. In the book when some of the boys start to show opposition Jack did exactly what Sad mentioned, he crushed it the moment it started.Which ca utilise fear amongst the boys. Dictators find terrible hinges to do for no reason but to cause fear amongst their people Hess going to beat Wilfred What for? said Ralph but Robert move his head doubtfully. l don know he never said why The chief was sitting in the cave, naked to the waist, his face blocked out in white and red. The newly beaten and untied Wilfred was sniffing noisily in the background (Gilding 160). In this it is clear that Jack Just beat Wilfred because he had been angry. This act caused fear amongst the group of boys. The fear caused kept the boys loyal to their chief.Jack would have had no way to control al the boys if he never used fear. This doesnt mean its right by any means. Basher al-Sa d and Jack both use fear in a harsh way to control their people and ideas of government. Basher al-Sad current dictator in Syria is very similar to the character Jack in Lord of the Flies such as some of their motives. In Syria there are many rules Freedom of speech communication was only marginally restored but for the most part Sad kept it the same (Basher 2). In Lord of the Flies Jack and Basher kind of relate to each other because the both did not allow granting immunity.The fact that Basher and Jack wouldnt allow freedom of speech was most likely because they wanted to prevent any uproars or anything that could harm their spot in leadership. Then went on piggy, that boy- I forgot - your talking too much said Jack Merrier. Shut up, Fatty. Laughter arose and Piggy was silent (Gilding 21). Here we not only see Jack being cruel towards Piggy but we also see him limiting Piggy speech. This action is harsh and even though Piggy had freedom of speech it was almost as if Jack stole that from him. Most likely Piggy is not the only person Jack treated like that.This is how we can see some f Basher al-Sad and Jacks motives line up. In Lord of the Flies we see that fear plays a enormous role in the book. It plays off between the see between Jack and Ralph. Fear is a strong emotion and can cause many situations. We see this not only in the book Lord of the Flies but also in our everyday lives and other political power struggles in our World. much(prenominal) as the fight for power in World War II with Doll Hitler and the Jews. It is even seen currently in Syria with Basher al- Sad and his citizens. Jack, Hitler, and Sad all have one main thing in common they all ruled with fear.

Two Ways to Belong

deuce Ways to Belong in America Tiffany Detter PRPE 108 October 3, 2012 Caparas Mukherjee states, In iodin family, from two sisters alike as peas in a pod, on that point could not be a wider divergence of immigrant experience. (p. 282). Bharati Mukherjee was born and raised in Calcutta, India and immigrated to the United States in 1961 to earn an M. F. A. and a Ph. D. in literature. In Two Ways to Belong in America, Mukherjee addresses the issues that confront immigrants in America. In this race we see how two of the same people can suddenly sense of smell or experience the same thing in two disparate ways.Mira and Bharati immigrants from Calcutta have sustaind in the United States for several(prenominal) 35 years. The Mukherjee sisters find themselves on different sides in the current debate over the status of immigrants. Bharati is an American citizen and Mira is not. When the Mukherjee sisters moved from India they were almost identical in appearance and attitude. Their or iginal architectural plan was to endure two years in America, secure their degrees, then surrender to India to marry the grooms of their fathers choosing.However, Mira ended up marrying an Indian student and acquired the labor certifications incumbent for the green card. Mira lives in Detroit, is nation bothy recognized for her involvement in the palm of pre- groom education and p arnt-teacher relationships. After 36 years as a effectual immigrant she clings passionately to her Indian citizenship and has hopes to return to India when she retires. Bharati married an American of Canadian parentage. She was fit to bypass the labor-certification requirements and the race-related quota system.The Mukherjee sisters have remained sisterly mingy by ph atomic number 53. They probably pitied wholeness another. Mira, for the lack of structure in Bharatis life, the erasure of Indianness, the absence of an consistent daily core. Bharati, for the narr giveess of Miras perspective, her un involvement with the mythic depths or the superficial consume culture of this society. Mira feels manipulated and discarded. She believes its such an unfair way to treat a individual who was invited to stay and work. Miras employer went to I. N. S. and petiti angiotensin converting enzymed for the labor certification.She believes that if America wants to make rules curtailing benefits of legal immigrants they should still apply to immigrants who arrive after the rules are in focalize. Miras interpreter is not just the voice of the South Asian partnership precisely of an immigrant community of the millions who have stayed rooted in single craft, one city, one house, one ancestral culture, one cuisine, for the entirety of their productive years. Nearly 20 years prior Bharati was living in her husbands ancestral homeland of Canada where she to a fault was always well-employed but never allowed to truly feel part of the Canadian society.Through a green paper that invited a nati onal referendum on the outcast side effects of nontraditional immigration, the government officially off-key against its immigrant communities, peculiarly those from South Asia. Bharati was able to feel the same feeling Mira currently has and exit never be able to forget the pain of that sudden turn. A sense of betrayal had its desired effects and drove Bharati and thousands others from the country.Although the Mukerjee sisters differ, Mira being happier to live in America as expatriate Indian than as an immigrant American and Bharati have the need to feel like a part of the community in which she has adopted. The price that the immigrant pays is the trauma of self-transformation. My sister and I came to face connatural hardships as the Mukerjee sisters only in a different way. There is one thing in life all kids eventually have to endure, that is unless you are home schooled. This place can be the most evil place or it can be fun and exciting. No matter what your mentality on this place is, you will have to go.We call this place advanced SCHOOL. It is the place of peer pressure, cliques, different classes and TONS of students roaming the hallways. My sister, Brittany, and I went by this process, and thats where the most evil thing happened. This is when our close relationship was turned upside down. Brittany was cool and popular. How could she not be? She had the looks, long flaxen hair, super model figure, and a dark tint to her skin. Plus she was a cheerleader. Everyone loved the cheerleaders, or so it seemed. I on the other transcend was tell apart as the brain or even sometimes dweeb.I had to everything to make it through those four dreadful years, only problem was everything was all up in my head and not in the looks. When we entered high school we promised each other that nothing would split us up. We ALWAYS did everything together. son WAS THAT A JOKE This promise was soon to be broken. I wasnt considered cool enough to hang out with Britta ny and her posse. No one wanted the little sister some or even the pulverization to be interfering. Brittany even asked one day at home, Why do you HAVE to hang out with me dont you have your own friends? So we parted our separate ways.I made friends and Brittany stuck to her group. We were still very close at home when it came to being around family but we were never caught around each other if her friends were around. It wasnt until Brittany had graduated high school that some of her friends realized that I was more than just the brain. It was as if they had opened up their eyes and realized that I was actually pretty cool in my own way. I had all the quirks and qualities Brittany had except I had none of the drama. It took them continuously asking well-nigh Brittany in order for them to realize this fact though.Although I had learned how to cope on my own through high school, Brittany and I still kept our close connection behind closed doors. in force(p) like the Mukerjee si sters, Brittany and I have stayed sisterly close (p. 281). We speak on the phone just about every week mostly about our families and children, and when we are with family we are always together. Brittany has showed me how to spice up my wardrobe as I have helped her learn to memorize and maintain her professional job as a nurse. Even though you may experience one thing two different ways you will always know how it feels when met with a situation that another is going through.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Urbanization and Rural Migrants

DefinitionsUrbanisation The procedure in which an increase residue of the people live in cities/urban bailiwicks. Urban growth increment in population size and/or physical size of the towns, cities and different larger urban settlements in a country or a region. Process whereby settlements grow in terms of population number and/or physical size Mega urban center A giant metropolis with a population of at least 10 machinedinal Slums A residential argona that is physically and socially deteriorated and in which satisfactory family life is impossible. Squatters Shelters with poor geomorphological quality and developed with come in legal claims to the land and/or authorization from the bear on authoritiesTrends in urbanisationGeneral trendsIn 1950, there were two megacities with 10 jillion or more inhabitants. By 2005, this number has increased to 20 and it is projected that there will be 22 megacities by 2015. Developing countries will exact 18 of the 22 megacities in 2015 .LEDCs vs MEDCsSince 1950, the most rapid growth in urbanisation has occurred in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) in South America, Africa and Asia. amidst 1950 and 1990, the urban population in LEDCs has doublight-emitting diode. In China, the urban population grew from 192 million to 375 million in 16 socio-economic classs. However, this is not the case in MEDCs, which sooner face the phenomenon of counter-urbanisation where people choose to move away from the bustling urban center to the quieter agrarian environment.Positive impacts (Reasons for urbanisation)Wage and use differentials Economic advancements ar best in the city for migrants due to higher wages and increased number of working days. For example, In Dehli, rural migrantsincome increase by cl% compared to those in villages. Job opportunities in the city chamberpot as well be found in the signifier of employment in informal sectors much(prenominal) as hawkers selling diet by the sidewalks. This requires limited capital as silver does not maintain to be spent on renting a workplace or a stall.The cities provide a greater opportunity for rural migrants to near the income ladder. The increased riches will enhance the lives of the migrants and their families as bills dope be spent on befitting food, water, healthcare and flush pedagogics. If the money is invested well in their children, their families can be brought out of the cycle of poverty, increasing their standard of vivification in the long run.Access to Amenities and ServicesDue to the penny-pinching propinquity of people in the highly be cities, it is easier and cheaper to provide amenities that are doorible and affordable to everyone. This is referred to as the economies of scale, hence allowing city dwellers to waste fall in and cheaper access to water and electrical supply. This results in an improvement in their living standards and decreases ones chance of contracting diseases related to the leav e out of straight-laced water supply.For example, water pipes and sewers can be constructed within densely populated areas more efficiently than laying long pipelines connecting houses in more dust rural settlements. The poor access to basic infrastructure has a disproportionate effect on rural women as they perform most of the national chores and often walk long distances to f etc. water. The energy spent on getting water can be best channeled to economic activities in urban areas.Future ProspectsPeople are willing to endure short-term vexedies in the hopes of better prospects of economic gain and improved welfare in the longer term, even if only for their children.Economic growthCities are engines of economic growth as they are places where money, run, wealth and manpower are centralized. Cheap labour will attract unusual investors as production cost is low. Through trade and tourism, foreign money will flow into the country, boosting the economy. Urban-based economic activ ities account for more than 50% of the pure(a)domestic product (GDP) In all countries. For example, Mumbai, the richest city in India, ha the highest GDP of any city in South, West and Central Asia.Negative impacts (Challenges)Urban unemployment and urban povertyThere is a huge economic income disparity, leaving a huge good luck between the rich and the poor in the cities. This is because the rural migrants lack education and the skills required to get a good job. Hence, the inhabitants of the urban areas have better access to the various industries due to the higher levels of education they received, while rural migrants only earn a meager income. This is made worse by the lack of jobs due to the sudden increase in population and work force in the city. Many rural migrants turn to the informal sector as their source of income, where there is no need for them to reach tax incomees.However, this results in a decrease in the governments income, which can be apply to build and impr ove infrastructure and provide better amenities and serve to the people. For example, in Morocco, street vendors are a common sight as these mobile traders do not have to pay rent or municipal tax. However, these informal traders cause small retailers to lose out in the competition and has forced many small businesses in the area to compressed down.Traffic congestionThe increased income means an increase in common soldier ownership of cars as a form of luxury instead of taking public transportation. However, this leads to duty congestions during peak hours due to insufficient roadstead in the transport network, leading(a) to delays and frustrations. It is estimated that in Bangkok, a car spends an average of 44 days per year stuck in traffic. Apart from being a waste of time, it also causes environmental and noise pollution. This affects the quality of life for urban dwellers.Environmental degradationThe increase in private car ownership and otherwise human activities result i n assembly line pollution and other forms of environmental degradation such(prenominal) as cast aside of chemical waste in waterways. More than 80% of sewage in developingcountries is discharged untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This makes water unfit for drinking and also upsets the ecosystem. Fumes from exhaust pipes cause the air to be filled with pernicious particles that negatively affect the health of urban dwellers, especially those with respiratory difficulties such as asthma.This is a prominent problem in Beijing, where the smog in the air is so thick that it is a cause of worry for the citizens. hummer causes lead pollution in the air, which has adverse effects on others health. The air in New Mexico causes lead levels in babies to be so high that it impairs their brain development. This affects the social wellbeing of the citizens.HousingRapid urbanisation has led to the development of squatter settlements and an informal sector to the economy. By 2050, it is estimated that the worlds population will be 9 billion, of which 3.5 million will be living in spends and squatter settlements. There is a huge prerequisite for lodgement due to the great increase in urban population. This pushes up the price of housing. Poor rural migrants who are unable to afford proper housing are forced to live in slums or squatters.1. These settlements lack proper sanitation, drainage and disposal systems (dumping ground). The houses are closely packed in a disorderly fashion, and often overcrowded with people. This makes the spread of communicable diseases such as tuberculosis quick and easy, giving rise to a high likelihood of health problems, especially given the unsanitary conditions. 2. There is an inadequate access to clean water and lack of a proper sewage system, allowing water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid to be spread easily. (2 million children are killed yearly by water contaminated by sewage.)3. There susceptibility be a high incidence of fire breakouts as the close proximity of the houses make it easy for the fire to spread. Furthermore, the disorderly arrangement of houses makes it difficult for slum residents to escape easily from the fire. 4. Lack of basic amenities and serve such as electricity means the need to use embrocate lamps and kerosene for lighting. This also increases the chance of a fire. 5. Makeshift shelters are built using low quality mental synthesis materials such ascardboards, planks, etc. that might be flammable. This encourages a fire breakout, and also means that a fire can cause the residents to lose all their possessions. 6. The lack of a proper drainage system might lead to flooding, especially for slum settlements build on water-retention areas.SolutionsHOUSING1. (Overcrowding) Curb the flow of rural-urban migration to ensure that the government can cope with the pace and provide the necessary infrastructure required a. mitigate living conditions in rural areas su ch that there will not be a need for rural dwellers to move to the city. b. Indonesian migrants to capital of Indonesia are required to obtain residence cards to prove that they have a job and accommodation in the city before permission is granted to them to leave the rural areas. 2. (Slums) Improving living conditions of squatter settlements a. For a Better Calcutta in India The Central Metropolitan Development Authority (CDMA) launched this 250 million programme to make slums more bearable and the city liveable by installing sanitation and sewers, drinking water and streetlights, health care and education. a.i. 150 000 street lighting points provideda.ii. Provision of 90 litres of water per capita per day. More than 20 000 water tap points and connections have been provided a.iii. Revamp and Renovation of drainage and sewage systems 45 000 permanent sanitary latrines (1 per 35 people) a.iv. Construction of 600m of paved roads and pathwaysa.v. Gardens, parks and playgrounds on 60 s ites are under construction.Provision of subsidized housing and relocationa. Cingapura project, Sao Paulo, Brazila.i. Brazil aims to replace slums with low-rise blocks of flats. They aim to resettle 92 000 families from 243 slum sites a.ii. Residents pay for the house over a span of 20 historic period at a low interest rate. 4. Self-Help Schemesa. In Nairobi, Kenya Africa, the World ass gives financial support to thesquatters. Building lots are provided and laid out with water, drains, roads lighting and occasionally clinics and schools. Squatters are given modest loans for building materials and are expected to build their own homes on prepared sites. 5. With these interventions, slum and squatter dwellers of urban areas are experiencing an improvement in the living environment.TRAFFIC 1. Restrictionsa. hold in vehicle growth by increasing the cost of private car to discourage car ownership. a.i. For example, in SG, potential car owners must pay to bid for a Certificate of Entit lement (COE) b. Reducing congestion by narrowing the number of cars on the road. b.i. In Singapore, ERP gantries are set up on frequently congested roads to collect additional road tax during peak hours. b.ii. Beijing restricts certain cars with certain numbers from going on the roads on weekdays 2. Encourage the use of public transport by improving and subsidizing public transport to make it accessible and affordable.MacroconceptsUrbanisation is an inevitable process for a country on its way to development. No country has achieved high-income post without first urbanizing, and nearly all countries become at least 50% urbanized before fully reaching middle-income status. Urbanization plays an important post in economic, political and cultural development, and also provides better access to education, employment and healthcare, hence improving the social wellbeing of the people.Even though urbanisation brings round both advantages and disadvantages, many of the urban problems are results of poor management and training and the absence of coherent urban policies. For example, in Africa, urban areas are economically stagnant or in recession, hence local authorities do not have the money or expertise to provide services such as access to water, housing, education and healthcare. This results in the formation of slums. (70% of Africas urban population live in slums) Hence, urbanisation itself is not a problem, and should be encouraged. However, it has to be accompanied with proper planning andregulation.